Category Archives: Dyeing

The SkeinMinder and Economies of Scale

There are 5 days left on the SkeinMinder Kickstarter campaign, and a few people have whispered this question in my ear: What if it doesn’t fund?  No need to whisper or wonder, let’s flat-out talk about the big white elephant.

Let’s back up a little and first ask, “Why is the goal of the campaign to sell 100 SkeinMinders and not 20 or 30?”  It comes down to a simple manufacturing principle – economies of scale.  As the quantity of something you build goes up, the per unit cost of building it goes down.  Dyers should already be familiar with this concept, since hand-dyeing is manufacturing.  It may be small-batch pretty manufacturing, but the same principles apply.  Both parts cost and labor cost goes down when you increase your batch size.

Let’s look at parts cost first.  I’ve priced out the parts for the SkeinMinder at several different build qtys, below is a graph of these.

SkeinMinder BOM_Chart1

The cost is normalized (compared to) a build quantity of 100.  Since I based SkeinMinder pricing off of the 100-build cost, I’m calling it the normal, 100% parts cost.  The parts cost for building 20 SkeinMinders is 200%, or 2X the cost of building 100.  The parts cost for building a single SkeinMinder is 400%, or 4X the cost for 100.  Dyers see this a little bit – buying 10 pounds of yarn is cheaper per pound than buying 1 pound.  Dye cost decreases when you buy larger qtys.  The reason that the curve for the SkeinMinder (and electronics manufacturing in general) is so steep is that there are over 100 parts in the SkeinMinder.  Some of the parts are also custom made, and quantity really has a huge impact on those because specialized human labor is involved.

Which brings us to labor costs.  This should be more familiar for dyers.  You have to do the same tasks whether you’re dyeing 1 skein of yarn or 10 skeins.  You still have to heat up water, you still have to mix (or extract) your dye, you still have to wash the yarn and dry it.  Doing this for 10 skeins may take 2-3 times as long as doing this for 1, but it doesn’t take 10 times as long.  Therefore, your cost of labor per skein goes down.  For the SkeinMinder, I estimate that it’ll take about twice as long to make 100 as it will to make 20.  So my per unit labor cost for making 20 is 2.5X the per unit cost for making 100.

With 2.5X labor cost and 2X parts cost, it should be pretty obvious that the SkeinMinder will also have a different viable sale price depending on if it’s manufactured in a batch of 20 or a batch of 100.  In order to keep the final SkeinMinder sale price as low as I could ($365), I based it off the 100 qty cost.  This is why I also had to make the campaign goal selling 100.  (Note: the actual campaign total is slightly more complicated because there are non-SkeinMinder yarn rewards as well, which all have additional costs.  Plus Kickstarter fees and shipping counts toward the total, so those have to be factored in as well.)  If I set the campaign goal lower and met it but only sold 20 SkeinMinders, I’d be in trouble.  They’d be much more expensive to build, and I’d end up losing money.

Which of course brings up another question, “Couldn’t you build 100 now anyway, and sell the rest of them later?”  This is a topic that dyers should also be familiar with – the significant cost of holding inventory (aka – another way to lose money).  If it funded at a lower goal, I’d likely have just enough money to fulfill the non-SkeinMinder rewards plus (hopefully) buy parts for 100.  But then I wouldn’t be compensated at all for my labor.  I’d still be spending time buying parts, scheduling everything, and managing vendors.  I’d still have to spend time assembling SkeinMinders.  Sure, I could delay assembly until I’ve actually sold the remainder, but guess what?  Remember that 2.5X labor cost for assembling batches of 20 vs 100?  Yep, I’ve just increased my unit cost by assembling them in smaller batches.

So the case of building 100 when I haven’t sold 100 turns into a big cashflow problem.  All the money I raised would be tied up in inventory, and I wouldn’t be compensated for my labor until the rest sold.  Which, judging from the campaign, might take 3-5 years for all 100.  Dyers who retail should understand the cost of inventory on a deep personal level, because the following scenario has probably happened to all of us at some point.  You have a show coming up in 2 months.  You spend money up front buying yarn and dyes.  You spend 2 months dyeing yarn for the show full-time.  You have auxiliary expenses of show fees, advertising, etc.  Then you go to the show and…..you don’t sell nearly as much as you thought you would.  You’ve covered your show expenses and parts cost, but don’t have enough left over to compensate yourself for your 2 months of labor preparing for the show.  Which means you have to find some other way of paying your rent and groceries for those months, and your money is tied up in your leftover yarn until it sells.  So you’re a bit stuck cash-wise.

Basically, the point of the Kickstarter campaign is to avoid the above scenario.  Sales happen up-front, which funds the cost of parts, and the labor for the time it takes to make them.  The number of sales is a known quantity, so I avoid guessing and making too many, then being stuck with a bunch of inventory and not able to pay myself.  So it brings us back to the original question – what happens if the Kickstarter doesn’t fund?  Is it just not economically viable and no more SkeinMinders will ever be made?  Is there no hope for winding efficiency and tools for hand dyers????

Don’t worry, the show will go on.  It’ll just be a slightly different show.  If the campaign doesn’t fund, it proves that the market isn’t big enough to support a run of 100 SkeinMinders.  There’s still a market, and I’m happy to say that the people who want a SkeinMinder (or another SkeinMinder) are quite vehement in their demand, but it’s smaller.  So I’ll have to make them in smaller batches, which means that I’ll have to increase the price.

I’m working on pricing now, and even though my costs for making 20 will be over 2X what they are for making 100, the final price won’t be 2X.  I just don’t think that would be viable from a customer perspective.  I’m looking at margins, and figuring out a price and a way to build them that will be economically neutral.  Meaning that my time will be fairly compensated, but there won’t be enough margin to make it a self-sustaining manufacturing line (there won’t be enough profit to buy parts for the next batch and keep a continuous production cycle going).  It’ll likely be a build-to-order product with about a 3 month lead time.  I’ll take a deposit up-front in order to split the financial risk between me and the customer.  If I charged the full amount up front, the customer is fronting the entire cost and trusting me to deliver.  (Which of course I will, but it’s not guaranteed from the customer’s perspective.)  If I waited until just prior to shipping to charge anything, I’d have to front the entire cost and trust the customer to not change their mind.  A 50-50 split allows me to at least cover the parts cost up front, and it commits the customer without putting the entire burden on them.  I’d handle orders through my own website, not another crowdfunding campaign.

Ok, cool.  So why should you still bother to back the Kickstarter?  From my perspective, it gives me a much clearer idea of the demand, so that I can price it for the right batch size.  I can’t guarantee that everyone who backs at $365 will necessarily back at a higher price, but it’s a really good starting point.  Also, I super appreciate everyone who was willing to commit to the Kickstarter.  If you end up ordering a SkeinMinder from me directly, I’ll see if I can do a small discount, and I’ll at least throw in free shipping.

From your perspective, if you want a SkeinMinder, you can’t lose by backing the campaign.  Kickstarter is all-or-nothing, so if it doesn’t reach the funding goal, you won’t be charged.  Nothing happens, you keep your money.  If you still decide to buy a SkeinMinder at the higher price, you’ll be able to order one through my website.  And hey, if Kickstarter does actually fund – awesome!  You’ve helped to make it happen (seriously, backers attract more backers!) and you get a SkeinMinder at a lower price than you otherwise would.

To all my backers – thank you so much for your support.  Even if it doesn’t fund, it’s definitely been a worthwhile experience.  And I know more now than I did 40 days ago, which is always valuable.  :)   Now to write a few more emails because it ain’t over til it’s over.

-Carrie


The SkeinMinder is on Kickstarter!

SkeinMinder Postcard Kickstarter_Page_1

I’m pretty excited to finally be able to write that and tell you all about it!  Well, mostly.  I have to admit, I’ve done more writing in the past couple of months than I think I have in the past 5 years combined.  I wrote personal emails to many many dyers, wrote a new SkeinMinder website, wrote the entire Kickstarter campaign, wrote a bunch about it in my Ravelry Group, and now writing more here!  It’s a good thing I like to write.

In any case, I don’t want this blog post to just repeat what you can already find on the website or Kickstarter campaign.  I’ve kept my blog a little more personal, a little more behind-the-scenes, a little more of a direct pipe from my brain to your eyeballs.  So I’ll keep the pitch short – the SkeinMinder is a tool for indie dyers.  It automates their existing motorized skein winders.  You can plug in your winder, set it to a number of rotations, and the SkeinMinder will keep track of them, and automatically stop your winder for you.  It may not sound like much to knitters, but for dyers with table-top winders, it’s revolutionary.  You can read more about life with and without a SkeinMinder on the campaign page.

When I say that the SkeinMinder is the best project I’ve done, I really do mean it.  Sure, I’ve worked on way flashier cutting-edge tech projects that were pushing the limits of what you could do with off-the-shelf electronics.  The work was fun, and I love an impossible challenge.  The SkeinMinder is comparatively simple from an electronics standpoint, but it has an element of personal connection that is rarely present in a pure tech project.  What I mean by this is that I’m actually improving people’s lives.  I realize I’m not feeding starving children or curing cancer or anything, but I’m making a huge impact on people that kind of mean a lot to me – indie dyers.

There aren’t many businesses who cater to the needs of indie dyers.  We’re a very small niche, we pop up and disappear all the time, and we tend to run our businesses without a lot of spare cash.  Newsflash, right?  Dyeing yarn is a lot of hard work for very little pay.  Lots of personal satisfaction, sure, but not a lot of dollars.  So who would actually try to make tools and sell them to this market?  You’d be marketing to a group of people that don’t really function as an industry, don’t have an official organization or network, have a high turnover rate, and are struggling to be profitable.  Pretty much only another person with a passion for dyeing would attempt this. To anyone else, it’s just a losing proposition.

You can see this with the main tool that indie dyers use – skein winders.  They’re all made by other dyers, or the spouses of dyers.  They’re expensive because they’re made in small quantities – one, five, or maybe 10 at a time if business is screaming.  The SkeinMinder faces the same challenge, but even more so because it’s an electronics product.  It’s possible to make electronics in small quantities, but not at a price at which you can turn them around and sell them to someone else.  You need to build batches of about 100 for the cost of parts and manufacturing to fall enough for that.

This is why the SkeinMinder’s Kickstarter goal is $65,000.  The stack-up goes like this: I need to make 100 in order to sell them as low as $365 each.  Add fees, shipping, and start-up costs to that.  And then, in order to ship in August, I’m going to have to work on the SkeinMinder full-time for 4 months.  I’m not going to be able to dye yarn (other than what I’m dyeing for the Kickstarter rewards), and I’m not going to be able to do any consulting work.  So it has to be able to pay me a fair and reasonable wage for that amount of time.

Making the SkeinMinder is a bit like hand-dyeing yarn – it’s mostly a labor of love.  I don’t know if dyers are a big enough market that I can sell 100 of them.  I really don’t know if I can actually reach the majority of hand dyers by the end of March.  This is where you come in.  (You were waiting for this part, right?)  Yes, backing the campaign is super awesome and you will have my gratitude until my dyeing breath (see what I did there?).  But what’s even more awesome is spreading the word about the SkeinMinder.  Dyers tend to the get their news from other knitters, so the more knitters who know about it, the more the word will spread to dyers.  Sharing, re-posting, re-gramming, re-tweeting, blogging, and podcasting all make a huge difference.  Thank you to everyone who has done that so far!

I really hope that I can reach out to dyers everywhere.  And not just because I want to work on SkeinMinders for the next 4 months, but because I truly want dyers to have better tools.  Wrangling yarn is so much work, anything to make it just a little bit easier is so worth it.  When my beta group wrote me their testimonials, I actually might have shed a tear or two.  Their workflow improved so much and they were so grateful for it – I was moved.  Every engineer’s dream is to make something that people love.  And here I am, living the dream.  Now to do everything I can to make it come true.

Join us on kickstarter 2

<3,

-Carrie


Mordants and Natural Dyeing, The Great Debate

I’ve thought about writing this post for a while. This topic, more than anything else in natural dyeing, brings up emotion and occasional controversy. My goal with this post is to present some facts, with references to reputable sources that you can check and read further. Natural dye books unfortunately tend to be bastions of misinformation, rife with generalities and opinions that are expressed as facts, and I do not consider the majority of them to be reputable sources of factual information about chemicals or chemistry.

I always kind of cringe when someone asks me about mordants and their toxicity.  It’s not because I’m reluctant to talk about it, it’s just that it’s a complex subject and I usually don’t have time at a show or in an interview to address the topic well.  It’s a difficult one to answer succinctly. That’s a big reason that I chose to write about it here on my blog, since I have the latitude to write a long post, and you readers are used to me going on for a while. :)  In fact, I’m going to apologize for the length of this post right now.  It’s a beast, I know.  But I intend it to be a relatively comprehensive reference for anyone wanting to learn more about the topic.

If there is a short answer to the toxicity question, it’s something like this: In order to dye a wide variety of colors, it takes chemicals.  No matter if the dyes themselves are natural or synthetic, they both take chemicals in order to properly bond. They also both take varying amounts of water. They both use resources and leave a footprint. The choice to use natural or synthetic dyes, or the choice of what mordants to use, is primarily a personal decision.  Each person makes a different choice based on their goals, experience, and environment. I do not look at this as there being a right or a wrong choice.  My goal is to arm you with knowledge, so that you can choose which chemicals you want to use.

To be clear, the health risks of dyeing are to the dyer, not to the yarn consumer.  The final yarn itself is not going to be hazardous.  The safety risks are due to prolonged exposure to these chemicals, over time, in large concentrations. Dyers should always use gloves when handling mordants, other chemical assists, and wet yarn. Not only may some chemicals cause irritation, but skin is also porous and can absorb chemicals if not protected.  Face masks are also recommended for synthetic dyes, or when handling any chemical that is in a fine powder form, and is easily airborne and inhaled.  Also, many mordants form acids when dissolved in water, which can be released in gaseous form when the mordant bath heated.  ALWAYS mordant in a well-ventilated area, and use lids on your pots to control fumes.


What Is a Mordant, Anyway?

A mordant is a chemical that becomes part of the molecular bond between the fiber and the dye.  Primarily these are metal salts.  (They are salts in the chemical sense of the word – the hydrogen atom of an acid is replaced with a metal ion. They are NOT edible salts.) You can think of a mordant as a molecular glue.  In general, dyes and fibers have a weak affinity for each other. If you tried to dye yarn without a mordant, the color would be very dull, and it would wash out promptly and fade easily. A mordant sticks to fiber well, and it also sticks to dye well. So you essentially “dye” the yarn first with a mordant, then repeat the process with the dye itself. This results in a strong bond between dye and fiber, which is fast to both washing and light exposure (in varying degrees for various dyes and mordants and combinations thereof). The mordant also affects the final color of the dye. Alum and tin are considered neutral mordants, because the resulting color on yarn is pretty much that of the color of the dye bath. Iron and copper are considered “saddening” mordants, because they make the color both darker and either browner, bluer, or greener.


Mordant 1: Alum (aka Potash Alum)

alum

Potassium Aluminum Sulfate or Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Dodecahydrate
K(Al)(SO4)2 or K(Al)(SO4)2 * 12(H2O)

Use in Natural Dyeing:

The most common mordant used.  It’s considered a neutral mordant, in that it does not result in a color that is appreciably different than that of the dye bath.  It is considered to have good color fast properties, though other mordants result in even more color fast shades.  It is commonly used in conjunction with cream of tartar, which is thought to increase aluminum uptake and protect the hand of wool fibers, keeping them soft.

Other Common Uses:

  • additive used in water treatment to cause flocculation of impurities.  Alum disrupts the electrostatic charge surrounding fine particles and causes them to clump together.  Clumped, these particles are easier to filter out.
  • additive for pickling for improved crunchiness.  From what I’ve read, this is largely obsolete with quick-process pickling that is commonly used these days.  It is no longer recommended, and is no longer included in USDA pickling recipes.
  • the acid in some baking powder to cause CO2 to form.  “Alum” is referred to frequently as an ingredient, though sources that use the full chemical name typically refer to sodium aluminum sulfate, not potassium aluminum sulfate.
  • sometimes added to flour, sugar, or salt as an anti-caking agent
  • the crystal in crystal deodorants.  This is usually pure potassium aluminum sulfate.
  • astringent in styptic pencils to stem bleeding.

Hazards of Potassium Aluminum Sulfate:

Alum is generally considered the least toxic, or even a non-toxic mordant because it has long been used an additive to both foods and drinking water. Potassium aluminum sulfate does not even have a regularly published LD50, meaning an incredibly high dose would be needed to cause death.  However, it does form weak sulfuric acid when dissolved in water.  When the water is heated (during the mordant process), this can result in acidic fumes which are corrosive, and irritating when inhaled.   Always keep a lid on a hot mordant bath.  Moisture from bare skin can cause more concentrated sulfuric acid to form on contact and cause chemical burns, always wear gloves and handle crystals with utensils.  Potassium aluminum sulfate is also corrosive to many metals.  While it may slightly corrode aluminum pots as well, I always mordant in an aluminum pot to prevent any iron contamination that could occur when using a steel (yes, even stainless steel) pot.

Hazards of Aluminum:

In a World Health Organization report in 2003, they considered studies on the link between aluminum in drinking water and the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease to be conflicting and inconclusive, but recommend minimizing aluminum levels in finished water.  A 2011 IJAD article (referenced below) states that aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin, and there is increasing evidence that it has a role in the onset of Alzheimer’s.  The EPA only lists aluminum in a secondary guideline for recommended maximum contents in drinking water, as 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L (or ppm).

My Conclusion:

Though there is no clearly demonstrated causality between aluminum and Alzheimer’s, there is certainly evidence that aluminum crosses the blood-brain barrier and alters cognition in an undesirable manner.  Because of this,  I do not consider alum to be a benign chemical.  I always handle it carefully (with gloves) both in its solid form and once it’s dissolved in water.  I also always mordant outside, and use a lid.

References:


Mordant 2: Iron (aka Copperas or Green Vitriol)

iron

Ferrous Sulfate or Ferrous Sulfate Heptahydrate
FeSO4 or FeSO4 * 7(H2O)

Use in Natural Dyeing:

Iron can be used as a mordant on its own, but it’s generally used as an afterbath, to modify color dyed on fiber that was initially mordanted with alum.  It “saddens” color, making it more greenish-brown.  Yellows become olive, and pinks become plummy purples.  Protein fibers like wool are very sensitive to iron, and too high of iron concentrations or exposure for too much time can damage the fiber and/or make it have a harsh feel.  This is why iron is generally used as an after-bath step, to modify color that has already been dyed using alum as a mordant.  Exposure can be easily controlled, and the color is already fixed to the fiber with the alum mordant.

Other common uses:

  • dietary iron supplement, used to treat anemia
  • used in combination with tannins to produce historical inks
  • flocculant for treating synthetic dye wastewater

Hazards of Iron and Ferrous Sulfate:

Iron is a main component of the hemoglobin in our blood and necessary for life.  Because of this, the body has mechanisms to absorb iron from food, and thus it’s actually possible to overdose.  Somewhat paradoxically, this makes it more toxic than many other metals found in mordants, like aluminum or tin.  Children are especially susceptible to iron overdoses, and there have been documented cases of accidental death due to them eating adult iron supplements.  The EPA only lists iron in its secondary guidelines for contaminants  in drinking water (non-enforceable), recommending a maximum of 0.3 mg/L (or ppm).  Ferrous sulfate forms weak sulfuric acid when dissolved in water.  When the water is heated (during the mordant process), this can result in acidic fumes which are corrosive, and irritating when inhaled.  Always keep a lid on a hot mordant bath.  Moisture from bare skin can cause more concentrated sulfuric acid to form on contact and cause chemical burns, always wear gloves and handle crystals with utensils.

My Conclusion:

Iron should be used and stored with caution, especially if there are children in the household.  I treat it cautiously like any chemical, I wear gloves when handling it and keep hot mordant baths lidded.  I use iron very sparingly since I only dye protein fibers, which are easily made harsh with overexposure.

References:


Mordant 3: Tin

tin

Stannous Chloride
SnCl2

Use in Natural Dyeing:

Tin is considered to be a generally neutral mordant, yet it brightens colors and causes them to pop a bit.  It is the only way to get a truly bright scarlet red using cochineal.  Cochineal is also the only case in which a single bath method (dye and mordant in the same step) is highly effective and does not cause undue precipitation of the dye.  Drawbacks of tin is that (with the exception of cochineal reds) it is not considered to be as lightfast as alum.  Overexposure of protein fibers to high concentrations of tin or exposure over long time periods can cause them and become damaged.  Tin can be used as a pre-mordant in a separate step, like alum, though care must be taken to preserve the hand of the fiber.

Other common uses:

  • tin-plating steel to make tin cans
  • used as an indicator to detect the presence of gold.  A solution turns purple when gold is added.
  • approved US, EU, and WHO food additive, for color retention and anti-oxidation

Hazards of Stannous Chloride and Tin:

Inorganic tin salts are considered to have low toxicity since they’re almost entirely excreted after being ingested.  The World Health Organization has determined that it is not necessary to determine a numerical value for allowable tin content in drinking water, which is mirrored by the EPA in that there’s not even a secondary guideline established. Stannous Chloride forms weak hydrochloric acid when dissolved in water.  When the water is heated (during the mordant process), this can result in acidic fumes which are corrosive, and irritating when inhaled.  Always keep a lid on a hot mordant bath.  Moisture from bare skin can cause more concentrated hydrochloric acid to form on contact and cause chemical burns, always wear gloves and handle crystals with utensils.

My Conclusions:

There seems to be a pervasive myth in the natural dye world that tin is “highly toxic.”  It’s actually no more or less toxic than alum, and significantly less toxic than iron.  I don’t know where the reputation originated, perhaps the misinformed confuse inorganic stannous chloride with organotin compounds, which are completely different and highly carcinogenic.  All this said, I only use tin for a few colors, all based off of a cochineal scarlet.  I limit my use of tin because it’s relatively expensive (around $45/lb) and it tends to harshen protein fibers.  Also, it’s not quite as lightfast as alum, with the specific exception of cochineal scarlet.  There’s simply no other way to create that color, and it is incredibly durable.

References:


Mordant 4: Copper (aka Blue Vitriol or Bluestone)

copper

Copper or Cupric Sulfate or Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate
CuSO4 or CuSO4 * 5(H2O)

Use in Natural Dyeing:

Copper is used to “sadden” colors, as it tends to turn them more blue-green.  Yellows become greens, and pinks become purples.  It can be used as both an after-bath to adjust an alum-mordanted color, or it can be used as a pre-mordant on its own.  In the pre-mordant case, it’s typically used with citric or acetic acid to aid solubility, create a favorable environment for protein fibers, and increase copper uptake.  Unlike iron, copper does not harshen protein fibers.  The colors dyed with copper are generally more colorfast than those dyed with alum.

Other Common Uses:

  • herbicide and fungicide
  • “Bordeaux mixture”, an anti-fungal spray for grapes, rules about permissible weather and wind conditions vary according to state and locale
  • controlling root growth near water and sewer pipes, rules also vary about its use
  • controlling algae growth in ponds, rules also vary about its use
  • testing blood for anemia, it causes blood with proper amounts of hemoglobin to sink rapidly where anemic blood will float or sink slowly
  • etching zinc plates for printmaking

Hazards of Copper and Copper Sulfate:

Copper is found in several proteins and small amounts are necessary for proper biological function.  Like iron, an excess can cause poisoning and death.  Children are especially susceptible.  The maximum allowable contaminant level in drinking water is 1.3 mg/L (or ppm).  Mostly it is monitored because many plumbing fixtures are made with copper pipe, and the copper in them does leach into water.  Excess copper is also detrimental to aquatic life (fish are particularly susceptible), though dilute solutions are used to control algae.  Never pour a copper (or any other) mordant bath into a storm drain, or into any waterway or drainage.  Copper sulfate forms weak sulfuric acid when dissolved in water.  When the water is heated (during the mordant process), this can result in acidic fumes which are corrosive, and irritating when inhaled.  Always keep a lid on a hot mordant bath.  Always wear gloves and handle crystals with utensils.

My Conclusion:

Simply put, I like using copper.  I prefer using it over iron as a saddening mordant, because it does not affect the quality of the wool.  It also creates colors which are quite fast – they tend to bleed less when washing and rinsing, and they are more lightfast than colors created with alum.  Copper-mordanted yarn is also very effective at exhausting dyebaths, the color uptake is greater than that of alum-mordanted yarn.  Many times I’ll throw copper-mordanted yarn into an exhaust dyebath, and the resulting color will be a nicely saturated medium to dark tone.  With both copper and alum, I re-use mordant baths and always do my best to exhaust them before disposing of them.  I generally will use the exhausted baths to water plants that are acid-tolerant (and sometimes grass), or pour them down the drain (which leads to a sewer and wastewater treatment plant).  I handle copper carefully, with gloves, like I do any mordant or chemical.

References:


Mordant 5: Chrome

Potassium dichromate
K2Cr2O7

Use in Natural Dyeing:

Chrome is a mordant that tends to add a golden hue to dyes, and is considered to be quite color fast.  In the presences of protein fibers, it is reduced from its highly toxic hexavalent state (chrome-6) to a relatively safe trivalent state (chrome-3), where it then bonds with the fibers and becomes a mordant.  It is typically applied as a pre-mordant with formic or tartaric acid.  Prior to dyeing, the crystals themselves and mordanted yarn are light-sensitive, both should be stored in dark places out of direct sunlight.  Chrome has played an important historical role in dyeing very dark and colorfast blacks in conjunction with logwood.  It is not used often now, due to health hazards detailed below.

Other Common Uses:

  • a common ingredient in cement, it helps smooth texture and retard setting
  • photography and screen-printing for its photo-sensitivity

Hazards of Chrome:

Potassium dichromate is a hexavalent chromium compound.  It is highly toxic and quite hazardous to health.  Small amounts can cause contact dermatitus.  It is a known carcinogen meaning it causes cancer.  The maximum contamination level of chrome-6 in drinking water is 0.1 mg/L (or 0.1 ppm).

My Conclusions:

This one’s the doozy.  It’s the only mordant I won’t use and would actively recommend NOT using.  It is carcinogenic in its solid form – the form that’s used to mordant.  Despite the fact that it’s transformed to the non-carcinogenic chrome-3 state on fiber, I would never be able to be absolutely sure that there wasn’t any residual un-oxidized excess non-bonded chrome-6.  Some textiles dyed with chrome have been found to cause contact dermatitus, which points to the possibility of excess chrome-6.  Perhaps it’s possible to use a water-soluble chrome-3 compound that’s not carcinogenic….but for me, it’s not even worth the hassle of researching that.  I can create plenty of awesome colors without chrome.

References:


Why Natural Dyes

So, if it still takes chemicals that need to be handled carefully to create naturally dyed yarn, and extra processing time, and extra care to prevent fiber damage, why do it?  The answer varies for each of us.  I like making things from scratch.  The way I dye, I use primarily raw ingredients and extract the dye from them to create my colors.  I also have a strong background in science, and I like to tinker and I like to learn.  Natural dyeing speaks to me because it’s a bit challenging to understand the chemical interactions and different mechanisms for different dyes.  Things don’t always turn out how I’d expect them to, and I’m continuously learning more about the dyes, assists, and mordants, and how they interact with fiber.

I also wanted to show people that you don’t need synthetic dyes to create brilliant saturated colors. I get a lot of surprised reactions when people look at my yarns and realize they’re dyed with natural dyes.  They’re bright and vibrant, not the subdued color palette that most people associate with natural dyers.  Another reason I chose natural dyes is that the dyes themselves are a renewable resource.  Some I can even grow myself.  It’s pretty inconsequential in the grand scheme of things, but in this one small way, I could choose a natural product over an oil by-product.

It’s also – excuse the pun – a dying art. Not many people use natural dyes, fewer do it in a business and small manufacturing setting. Many cultures with long-standing natural dye traditions are turning towards synthetic dyes because they’re cheap and easier to use. I want more people to learn how to dye with natural dyes, and I’d like to contribute to a resurgence of information about the techniques. I don’t want these skills and this knowledge to decline and be lost.

One last reason that I choose natural dyes is that I have absolute control over the chemicals I use, and I know exactly what goes into each color.  This is typically not the case with synthetic dyes.  Even ones that use a lot of “green” marketing, combined with scare-marketing hype that proclaims to be “non-chrome” – even these contain small amounts of chrome, lead, and manganese.  These are metals which are toxic in smaller qtys and have higher health risks than alum, iron, copper, or tin.  To be clear, I am not throwing Greener Shades under the bus here.  While I disagree with their marketing strategy, I applaud them for publishing their test results, and I applaud them for trying to provide less hazardous synthetic dyes.  Most dye companies do not publish the actual ingredients of their dyes, and even as a dyer, it is rarely possible to obtain this information.

Again, I don’t have a problem with the proper use of synthetic dyes.  The final yarn is not going to be toxic or a health hazard.  I own plenty (and you fellow yarn hoarders know exactly what I mean by plenty) of yarn dyed with them.  I admire the work of all hand dyers and am jealous that synthetic dyers get to employ more varied dye techniques that result in a wider range of final color displays on yarn.  I personally don’t want to work with them often, because they’re fine powders that are easily airborne, they do contain small amounts of moderately to highly toxic metals, there’s always a bit of uncertainty as to their exact ingredients, and I’d rather not have to wear a respirator.

References:


The Final Send-Off

Oh man, I don’t want to end this post on a downer!  Dyeing is supposed to be fun, have I completely killed it for you?  I hope not.  By all means, DO go to a dye day.  DO take a class on dyeing, natural or synthetic.  It’s super fun to play with and create colors!  Just be properly informed and properly prepared.  Not all dyers treat their chemicals equally cautiously – I’ve seen people stick their bare hands into copper mordant pots, and I’ve seen people use synthetic dyes like fingerpaints without wearing gloves.  Be safe.  Use gloves, and use a mask when you’re dealing with fine powders.  Bring your own if you’re not sure that they’ll be provided.  And most of all – have fun dyeing!


The Mythical Blue-Red Club is OPEN!

I’m psyched to announce the first installment of the Alpenglow Yarn Dyer’s Club!

Club Flyer, Mythical Blue Red crop highres

In a post a few months back, I talked about how I really wanted to do more explorations of natural dyes, and share those with people.  And I want to do that on a level deeper than Hey, so cochineal is red and indigo is blue and here’s how you make a red and here’s how you make a blue.  I want to explore the questions that came up when I was dyeing production batches, things like – how do I make that particular shade of red, and how do I do it repeatably?

There’s kind of a hole in the information available on natural dyeing.  For thousands of years, it was experiential lore passed down from generation to generation.  Most of it was based on observation – I did this and that happened.  Right around the time when science started to flourish, natural dyeing on a large scale pretty much ground to a halt.  Why?  Because synthetic dyes were first created.  In fact, some people date the beginning of the Industrial Revolution as the year in which William Henry Perkin accidentally discovered mauve, 1856.

Sources of dye knowledge available now generally fall into two categories – the home dyer’s reference and the organic chemistry tome.  The home dyer’s reference is usually written by a textile artist with several years experience in using natural dyes.  It generally suffices to get you started, explains basic mordanting, and gives an overview of several dye stuffs.  It’s full of general knowledge and rules of thumb.  It can also be full of erroneous jumps to conclusions and misinformation.  These books are no help when one batch turns out a different shade than another.  Or when a recipe you’ve used a hundred times is suddenly turning your yarn brown and brittle.  A lot of people will just throw their arms up and say Well, that’s natural dyeing for you.  But there are actually scientific reasons that these things happen.  So then you start digging through an organic chemistry book and realize that frosh chem was a hell of a long time ago and not all that useful.  Digging out fact-based knowledge and practices that are understandable to someone without a chemistry degree, and also relevant to hand-dyeing wool, is like finding a needle in a haystack.

It’s definitely a goal of mine to bring a more scientific context to natural dyeing in an understandable way.  And also to debunk some common misconceptions.  (I’ve been thinking about doing a post on The Great Mordant Debate for a few years now, and I think I’ll actually be writing that one soon.)  One of my goals with this club is to not only provide members with beautiful yarn, but also provide insight into the science behind the colors.  I think of my audience as both knitters and experienced natural dyers alike, and seek to provide relevant information on how to repeatably and successfully naturally dye wool a certain color.

But I’ve blabbed enough about my super deep dye motivations.  Let’s hit the juice! (as our wine appreciation teacher would say.)

First up is The Mythical Blue-Red.  This is a color I’ve managed to create once, maybe twice, but is a devil to reproduce.  It’s the color of red velvet ropes, of fancy theater curtains, of dragon scales.  The kind of red that drinks in your eyeballs and sucks the blood out of you (in Soviet Russia….color drinks you!)  I’ll focus on how to create this color out of cochineal, because it provides the most fade-resistant fast red.  I should note that this color tends to be the natural color you get out of brazilwood.  Why not just use it?  It’s not quite as lightfast.  Really, it’s totally fine for the typical life of a piece of knitwear, but I worry about someone leaving their yarn in a south-facing window in summer for too long (I’m probably overly paranoid, I know) .  I may dye one of the samples with brazilwood, just for reference.

I read everyone’s responses to my survey about the club, and noticed a definite and quite funny trend.  Anyone who was primarily a dyer wanted the option that was more colors and less yardage.  Anyone who was primarily a knitter wanted the option that was fewer colors and more yardage.  :)  So I’ve given you both, plus one more for those of you that want both colors AND yardage.

  • No Frills – $65 – for the budget-conscious who still want all the colors: Members receive 100 yd skeins of 8 colors in the Smerf base (100% superwash merino, fingering weight), dye notes, and nothing else.  Ships in a USPS first-class tyvek envelope.
  • Knitter’s – $110 – for those who want a little more yarn and don’t mind fewer colors: Members receive 200 yd skeins of 6 colors in the Springy Corrie Sport base (100% Corriedale, very springy sport weight, 100% USA made), dye notes, and a few goodies.  Ships in a USPS Priority Mail box.
  • Gimme Gimme – $140 – for those who want it all: Members receive 200 yd skeins of 8 colors in the Smerf base (100% superwash merino, fingering weight), dye notes, and a few of my favorite things.  Ships in a USPS Priority Mail box.

But what if there’s this color that you really really love and you want a full skein?  Or enough full skeins to make a sweater?  Well, after you get your club shipment, you have a month in which you can order full skeins of any of the club colors for 20% off.  How does that sound?

All members receive their choice of yarn above, complete dyer’s notes about the processes involved and what influences contributed to each color, as well as the final dye recipes for each.  I’ll also include some project ideas for using the coordinating mini-skeins.  I’ll leave the club open until it either sells out, or September 22nd rolls around.  Shipments go out October 31st, 2014.

I hope you’re as excited about this as I am!  I can’t wait to get to those dye pots!


So What’s Next? Part I

Part I – Yarn

photo (5)

I’ve been thinking a lot about life. The universe. Everything. Towels. Towels that get you high. Towels that hitch you rides on spaceships. But I digress. I’ve mostly been thinking about what to scribble on this awesome blank page that is my life. Other than curse words and PENIS because, you know, I might still be 12.

I fired up the electronics brain again, and also fired up the dye pots and dyed a metric fuck-ton of yarn for Stitches West. So what’s up? Is it yarn? Is it engineering? For the love of Bob, what is it going to be?!?! As far as I can see it (and some days I can’t even see across my backyard), the plan is this. Yes. Yes is the plan. Doing things that I feel positive about, am excited about, doing things that I’m learning about. Because I’ve figured out that I’m kind of a learning junkie. If I’m not developing some new skill, or challenging my brain in some way, I get really bored and dissatisfied. That’s not to say that I don’t enjoy some solid repetition of things that I’ve learned to do well. I do! But constant repetition with nothing new kills me. I need variety.

Take yarn. Yarn is squooshy. Yarn is colorful! We make cool, three-dimensional things that we can put on our bodies – and lo! might even be functional! – out of yarn! Yarn is great. But as I was dyeing the metric fuck-ton, I remembered what I didn’t like about yarn. I didn’t like dyeing the same colors over and over. And I found that I tended to gravitate to the same palette again and again -the colors that I knew would sell, the colors that were predictable, the colors that were easy to make, the colors that I knew I wouldn’t screw up. They’re   delightful colors – I love almost every single one of them – but I felt like I was on a treadmill. With natural dyes especially, there are so many things you can try, so many variables. Every time I dyed a batch, I would think of a dozen other questions I had, experiments I wanted to do, things I wanted to explore. What if I used a different acid? What if I used a different reducing agent? What if I used a different species of plant? What if I used more of this and less of that? But the metric fuck-ton and Stitches West wait for no dyer. No time, just makes the pretty colors that you know will turn out well. Even then, there are guaranteed to be surprises that will completely muck with your schedule.


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image_medium (1)

I also learned something else – it was super fun to share the process of how I dye with people. If you haven’t already read it, I wrote a series of posts in the Stitches West Vendors Thread about each dye I used. The preparation, the boiling, the straining, and the yarn-coloring. The response to my posts, especially in person, was amazing. Far beyond what I had even hoped for in a tiny little corner in the back of my brain. So many of you came up to me and thanked me for sharing, it was just really sweet and completely made all the effort totally worth it. Thank each and every one of you so, so much. (And to the lady who works for Facebook who was interested in putting together a class but didn’t have a business card – info at alpenglowyarn eagerly awaits your email. Dorking out with other engineers about dyeing is totally my idea of a good time.)

I want to do more of these things. More sharing, more exploration. So I’ve made the decision to stop the production dyeing, and morph into something a little different. Clubs. That’s right, CLUBS. The c-word, the thing that has made several people fake their own death on the internet because it was just too much. Clubs. The cool thing is that I’ll have the opportunity to do a different exploration and theme with each one. To maximize the number of colors without making it stupidly expensive, each club would be a series of mini-skeins. So you would get 100 yds of 8 or 12 different colors that would all work together. You’d also get an article with each one, with a detailed account of how each color was made. Maybe sometimes, you’d even get mordanted yarn and some raw dyestuffs so you can try it at home. Sound like fun? Let’s see, which one of these should I do first? Tell me at the end of this post!

  • The Mythical Blue-Red. I managed to create it once and I’ve been trying to do it again for years, ever since it immediately sold out and people were pissed that I didn’t have the same exact red that the display shawl was knit out of. Seriously, I had to take the shawl down because it was causing too much trouble!
  • Madder Red. Related to the above, but different. What is the reddest shade I can coax out of madder, without making the wool harsh? Can I use chalk at all? How about no acid in the mordant bath? How about rubia tinctoria vs rubia cordifolia? Whole roots vs finely ground? Keeping the extraction bath under 160F or boiling the crap out of it?
  • Shades of Blue. How does indigo tinctoria differ from indigo suffruticosa? Does using thiox vs hydros affect the color? What’s the difference between 1-minute dips and 5-minute dips? What’s the difference between 1 dip and 10 dips? The list goes on, I could probably do several clubs with just indigo.
  • Backyard Sunshine. Yellows are the most prevalent natural dye and the easiest to grow. Weld, French marigold, Mexican marigold, chamomile, coreopsis, dyer’s broom, goldenrod. I’ve grown a bunch of this already, it’s just waiting in a dry bin for me to get around to playing with.
  • All Those Other Random Dyes I Have that I Haven’t Gotten Around to Trying. With lightfast tests. This is usually the piece missing from a lot of dye books. Some have this real boner for “dyes” that are hardly more than stains, that fade to brown and grey in under a year or with a few washes. Let’s look at some of these, and put them through their paces. Maybe I should do a half-price one called “Fugitive”, where the entire point is to use dyes that won’t last. Whoa. That would be crazy. Who would buy that?

Anyway, these are the ideas that fly off the keyboard in just a few minutes. I have tons more. You could spend your entire life experimenting with and coming up with processes for natural dyeing. People do!  I could. The fact is, I’m not exactly going to. I’m thinking of only doing 2-3 Alpenglow clubs per year, and 2-3 collaboration clubs with other dyers or businesses. Wait a minute, do you know about Among Friends? It’s an amazing group that I’m thrilled to have recently contributed to (and hope to again!). It’s run by the fantastic women behind Knitted Wit, Sincere Sheep, and Spark!, and the whole idea is to put together themed kits from a few different dyers and designers each time. With awesome, really cool, side-goodies. Go sign up for one now. I promise you will not regret it!

Where was I? Right. Spending less time on yarn. And more time on??? Electronics, duh! I think I’ve already rambled enough for one post, electronics is a whole ‘nuther topic worthy of its own post. And I totally promise that I will not be George RR Martin and make you wait for 5 years for Part II. (TV series coming soon! Now with EVEN MORE BOOBS!)


I should be…

  • Taking photos of yarn
  • Updating my website
  • Endlessly tweaking my website to make it better
  • Updating my yarns on Rav
  • Updating my projects on Rav
  • Figuring out sales tax for last quarter
  • Sending out a freakin’ newsletter since it’s been…what? Yeah, you probably didn’t know I even have a newsletter. Me neither.
  • What I am doing:

  • About to graft together the hood on my Vivian
  • Watching interviews with Lady Gaga on the internet.
  • Vivian Hood (Medium)

    Hey, don’t judge me on that last one – I blame my fitness teacher Michele for getting “Bad Romance” massively earwormed into my brain yesterday while doing a bazillion squats. Actually, to be totally honest, I think Lady Gaga is pretty damned talented. And I do like her Honeybadger doesn’t give a shit attitude.

    That said – GRUNGE 4EVER!!! I’m going to see the Foo Fighters tomorrow at the Forum in LA and couldn’t be more excited about it. I’ve been listening to their new album and watching videos on YouTube for a few days now. They are so goofy and awesome, I love you, Dave Grohl. LOVE YOU.

    Anywhoo – knitting, what? Well, since the weather started to turn chilly (until a heatwave decided to roll through – supposed to be 96 today, WTF?), I took my Vivian out of hibernation. (Which is being knit out of the blue yarn pictured in the blog header.) I set it aside for a few months since A) It was too darned warm to contemplate serious wool sweater knitting, and B) Once I completed the shoulders, I felt the waist was too high. So I busted it out again, tried it on again, took it to a few of my knitting groups, and got some opinions. All of which were along the lines of: “It looks great, WTF are you talking about?” And now that’s it’s sat for a while, it looks less short to me too. And it feels pretty nice when I have it on. So I decided to stop being such a stupidly picky perfectionist and just finish the damned thing already. I knit the remaining few rows of the hood last night, and now all I have to do is graft it together and install the zipper. Those are 2 huge things – the grafting is in cables & seed stitch, and I’ve never put in a zipper before – but I’m gonna power through them. Maybe even be done by the end of this weekend!

    There was another impetus for me to pick up the sweater again, which was reading Yarnagogo’s book A Life in Stitches. I was recently up in Oregon for OFFF, and hung out for a few days after to visit some friends. One of them told me that I had to go to Powell’s Books, and boy, was she right. It’s giant, a full city block, and it has its own map and information desks sprinkled throughout. I walked in, and was looking up with big wide eyes at the sign with all the subjects and their locations, when a nice voice asked, “Can I help you find something?” I turned around to the woman at the information desk and said, “Um, I don’t know. It’s my first time here. Maybe textiles?” She pulled out a map and gave me the quick overview, pointed out the textiles section (just through sci-fi, perfect!), and I noticed she had a knitting book in front of her. I excitedly asked, “Do you knit?” At which point she actually looked a little embarrassed and said, “Yeah, I knit.” I gave her a smile and said, “Me too, I actually have a business hand-dyeing yarn.” But she still looked a little uncomfortable, which seemed odd and made me uncomfortable, and so I didn’t bust out a business card and instead headed towards sci-fi and the coffee shop.

    Far from being giant and overwhelming with largeness and fluorescent lighting, like you might expect for a giant bookstore that takes up an entire city block, Powell’s is cozy and intimate. There are several floors and rooms, each one having a different subject. So I wandered through the sci-fi room and felt like I was in my own little geeky heaven. I went to the textiles section and found some awesome old books and pamphlets on natural dyeing. The other great thing about Powell’s is that used books are mixed right in with new ones, so all available knowledge on a subject is in ONE place. Brilliant!

    Anyway, I was wandering around with a 10-mile stare (have you ever seen people at the Stitches West Marketplace for the first time? Kind of like that!), just reveling in the fact that I was in a giant repository of human knowledge on just about every subject imaginable. And then, as I was scanning through the spinning books, I saw Abby’s Respect the Spindle. And I thought “Man, how cool is that. Someone I know has added to this great repository, has made a meaningful contribution to the sum total of human knowledge, and other people can come here and read and learn from her.” It almost made me want to buy the book again. And then I saw the latest issue of Spin-Off and thought about Jacey and her new book coming out. And then I thought “Hey! I haven’t read Rachael’s latest book!” Yes! Something I can buy from a person that I know! But wait – would that be in autobiographies or knitting or ??? So I went to the nearest info desk and the clerk looked it up for me. “I like the title,” he said. Yeah, me too. He directed me back to knitting, scan, scan, scan, scan – there! And I picked up a shiny new book, written by someone I’ve actually met and hung out with, and took it to the checkout counter with a silly grin on my face.

    It’s hard to articulate why that was such a neat experience. First, there was Powell’s. Instead of being some giant warehouse where everything looked the same, I instantly felt at home and like this huge place was my bookstore. Then I had the personal connection of knowing a few authors, which made purchasing something truly enjoyable. I was happy to be giving my money to a cool place, and know that a person I cared about was going to benefit from my small action. And at the same time, it was like a big FU in the face of giant chains and corporate branding and the growing homogeneity of our culture. My experience was actually personally relevant, suck on that Borders and Barnes & Noble! And there was also a smaller, and perhaps futile FU to the concept that books are obsolete. I’m a big technology whore, and I love that Kindles and iPads and tablet computers exist, but there’s nothing like browsing through an actual store and holding a physical book in your hands. Smelling the (probably toxic) page fumes. It’s just magical.

    Ahem. Where the hell was I? Inspired to knit sweaters, right! Well, in Rachel’s book, she talks about what was happening in her life at the time she was knitting certain things, and how those are intertwined. What I got out of all this was Damn, that girl has knit a lot of sweaters. Sweater knitting apparently is not a big deal for her. And then this giant lightbulb went off and I thought, “Shit, sweater knitting doesn’t have to be a big deal for me either. I’m the one who makes it a big deal just by thinking it’s a big deal, and you know what? I can control my own damned thoughts!!!

    So you heard it here first, folks. Sweater knitting – no big deal. I have a crapton of yarn, I know how to freakin’ knit, all I have to do is do it. So I’ve actually been using Ravelry to – gasp! – look up patterns lately, instead of drama. :) After all, Winter Is Coming.


    Home-grown Weld

    Funny story. So I’m growing weld for the first time, which is a dye plant that gives the most light fast yellow known. It shot up stalks and was taller than me, the little yellow flowers were starting to open. I wondered when the heck I should pick it, so I did what anyone with a computer does – I Googled it. And I became a bit confused by all of the hits for marijuana cultivation on the first page of results. (Get it? Hits? Ba-dump-chhhh!) At which point I notice the one-liner below the search box:

    Showing results for when to harvest weed. Search instead for when to harvest weld.

    Um, yes, please search instead…..

    Anyway, opinions seemed to vary on when to harvest weld (imagine that), and I also heard from another dyer that plants in crappy soil that only grew to about 2 feet tall yielded the best dye, and larger plants were likely to be quite weak. Hmmm. My plants were a bit over 2 feet tall….these are the couple I left after harvesting 4 more just like them:

    I cut off the flowers, put them in a paper bag, and hung the stalks upside-down in a dark place to dry. I left them for about 2 weeks. The flowers were already separated, I further separated the leaves, the remaining small stalks, and the large main stalks. Time for a test! Here’s the relevant data:

    • Yarn was superwash merino
    • Mordant was alum
    • Weld used at 50% WOG

    For those not familiar with natural dyeing terms, WOG is “Weight Of Goods”. In other words, the amount of weld used was 50% the weight of the yarn dyed, or 50g of weld per 100g of yarn. My 5 batches were:

    • European dried weld, what I normally purchase and use

    IMG_6593

    • Home-grown weld large stalks (not pictured)
    • Home-grown weld small stalks

    IMG_6592

    • Home-grown weld leaves

    IMG_6594

    • Home-grown weld flowers

    IMG_6595

    And the extraction & dyeing process I used:

    • Soak weld in water overnight
    • Soak test skeins in water overnight
    • Put weld and water in a stainless steel pot, bring to boil
    • Boil for 30 mins
    • Strain out weld
    • Add wet test skein to hot dyebath, leave to dye/cool overnight

    Normally I’d be more conservative about adding cold yarn to hot water – with minimally processed wools, it’s a recipe for harshness, if not outright felting. But these were small test skeins, superwash wool, and I didn’t want to spend a lot of effort on cooling the dyebath, since I was also dyeing production batches at the time. So I didn’t really care if they lost a little hand.

    And the results!

    IMG_6606 (Large)

    IMG_6601 (Large)

    Going from most saturated (left) to least saturated (right) in both shots above:

    • Home-grown flowers
    • Home-grown small stalks
    • European dried weld
    • Home-grown leaves
    • Home-grown large stalks

    So…I have to say I’m pretty stoked. I got what I’d consider really good color from my first crop! The flowers and small stems were definitely worthwhile, and the leaves were about on par with the European dried weld I had. The large stalks aren’t really worth the effort, I’d say they have about equivalent color to a typical exhaust bath.

    As far as when they were harvested…well, they had been flowering for the better part of a month, and the flowers near the tops of each head were just opening. Plants were about 5 feet tall, and as you can see in the very first pic, had one main stalk with many sub-stalks and flower heads. Another very interesting thing is that all of these plants are less than a year old. This is a little strange – weld is supposed to only form basal rosettes the first year, like so:

    Weld rosettes (Large)

    I planted these in July of last year, so I guess you could argue that it’s the second growing season and they’ve seen one “winter”. But, I planted more seeds in early April of this year, and a few of them are now stalking in their first season:

    Weld small stalk (Large)

    San Luis Obispo does go hot/cold a lot in the spring and fall. It’s not unusual to have a week of 85-90 degree weather followed by a week of 60 degree weather. So I think the temperature swings faked them out into thinking they had seen a “winter”. Speaking of “winter” – it does dip below freezing at night, but a high in the 50s would be a pretty cold day. I shut off the sprinklers between November and February this past year, and the weld rosettes were overgrown by coreopsis and marigolds. So I pretty well neglected them for about 4 months and they survived and dyed splendidly.

    The moral to this story – JUST GROW IT! Seriously, you have nothing to lose and weld is spendy stuff, so there’s a lot to gain. As you can see from these last 2 pictures, I’m planting it in whatever space I can around the house and it seems to be doing well.

    Where you can buy weld seeds:
    Thyme Garden Herbs
    Sand Mountain Herbs
    Alchemy Works
    Earth Arts (link removed, site not active)
    The Woolery
    Horizon Herbs doesn’t carry weld, but carries a lot of other seeds and even madder seedlings in season.

    Do note that the proper name for weld is Reseda Luteola. The main dye compound is luteolin, which is the most light fast natural yellow. There is also a species of plant called Reseda Lutea, but this is not true weld and contains zero to very small quantities of luteolin (Cardon, Natural Dyes, pg 171). So make sure you get the right stuff!

    Happy growing!

    edited 07/10/2014 to update links


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